history of abraham
biblical astronomy
biblical Studies
biblical research
biblical astronomy
biblical Studies
biblical research

The Birth of Abraham

God’s Symmetry in Creation

  As we begin this study on Abraham’s birth, Id’ like to take some time to consider the banner above that heads this section. As in other instances, the banners on this site will serve as teaching tools, and this banner conveys some powerful concepts that we need to notice. There is a heated debate today surrounding Intelligent Design vs. Evolution. Our position has a different take on this debate. Our thesis is that the Creator, and Almighty God not only is the Sole Power capable of Creating the Universe and world we live in, but also that He left us unmistakable evidence which glorifies Him as this Creator. God is perfect in His expression of His Omniscience and Omnipotence, and as an aspect of this perfection there are symmetrical elements in His Creation that will point to Him as the Sole Source of this power of Creation.
Astronomy is a prime category where this Symmetry can be found, as a major category of Natural Law. We have enumerated many examples of the phi ratio in Nature, in some of our other studies on this site, but I’d like to take this time to state our case succinctly. These symmetric principles were designed by God, into various living and non-living systems from the very beginning, and do not appear as a result of any exclusive evolutionary process in Nature. Very simply, if this Symmetry is present at the outset, and I might add, not in an isolated sense, but it is pervasive regardless of scale, then Intelligent Design is not only implied but, it becomes a given. One reason we can make this statement is because we aren’t looking at these many manifestations of the phi ratio operating in some man-made human system, but as a significant part of a mathematical reality that lies outside and above any human system. Thus, as an observed reality, we don’t discover or formulate it, we only observe it in all its beauty and awesome detail. These principles of Symmetry in Creation don’t occur haphazardly, or merely here and there, but they are seen systematically & on multiple inter-related levels and dimensions throughout all Creation. This is undeniable evidence of the Intelligent Design of the Creator.
  The banner above focuses on a phi/Fibonacci relationship in our solar system between Jupiter and Saturn in relation to the Earth, reflected in the line below the planets divided according to the phi ratio. This exhibits a phi relationship relative to the mean heliocentric distances of these planets. As these planets are dispersed in their orbital paths throughout the solar system, they reflect this phi relationship! But this is only one of these relationships among many in our solar system. If it was only one or a few disconnected incidents of phi, it could be written off to coincidence, but as we will see this is clearly not the case.
We also find relationships of the Fibonacci Series and the phi ratio in the mean sidereal & mean synodic planetary cycles, not to mention their periods of revolution and mean orbital speeds, to include inverse velocity relationships, all based on the ubiquitous phi ratio. Again these multiple phi relationships on their own, might perhaps not be enough evidence to convince us of the Creator’s Intelligent Design, however once we see that all these individual planetary relationships fit together themselves in a phi spiral, or logarithmic spiral that operates as an exponential constant, organizing the entire order of our solar system, God’s Symmetry becomes much more difficult to deny. This is especially the case when we find that the beauty of this celestial phi symphony of our solar system is only a smaller reflection of the same phi spiral that highlights the rotational Symmetry of our spiral Galaxy in the Milky Way, and throughout other spiral galaxies in the Universe. In case you think I’m making this stuff up, please go to the following link, which goes into greater detail regarding these truths than I have space for here. (www.spirasolaris.ca

Plate I. The Milky Way Spiral

spiral galaxy

  I have used a musical analogy above to describe the symmetrical beauty of the phi dance of the planets, not haphazardly but by design. Let me explain. The basic essence of musical Symmetry is Rhythm consisting of a regular periodic repetition of individual parts, identical to the constitution of the symmetric whole. The proof of design is in the intelligent organization of the individual parts, in concert and ruled by the same phi/Fibonacci principles that govern this system on the larger scale. The design of the Creator’s Symmetry is what is known as “scale invariant.” Some scientists compare this “Scale invariant symmetry” to a “stringed musical instrument that resonate with tuning forks tuned to the same base frequency, or ones that are tuned to entire octaves above or below the base frequency, but not to different frequencies.” 1 No matter the size of the system, it is ruled by the same phi principle at multiple levels, in an interconnected and symbiotic whole, that points to the only Conductor who is capable of directing this beautiful symphonic Creation, The One and Only Almighty God!!

  To take this a step further, our study of the phi ratio, aligned with the Creator’s Symmetry as He applied His principles of Intelligent Design in Creation, can be organized along the following lines. Music is the harmonious ordering of the temporal world, Geometry is the harmonious ordering of the spatial world, and Astronomy represents the harmonious ordering of Space-Time. God treated space and time on a level playing field long before Albert Einstein woke up to this truth in the early 20th century [Heb. 1:3]. Ultimately this union is rooted in the unity of Sound and Light, first found in the Genesis Phrase: AND GOD SAID… When God Thundered forth His Spoken Word, it was the essence of Divine Truth at the foundation of All Creation, which is found by scientists today, as a series of interconnected energy fields that vibrate coherently and on multiple levels, in the symphony of a universal harmony of matter and energy. If there is a unified field theory to be found, this will be its true Source! It is a vibrantly living ALL Truth that resonates through all levels of Creation, not some stale "information theory." Information is neutral and devoid of the power the Creator has infused in the Word of His Truth. Science is at a loss to explain the coherence of repeated cosmic ratios, along with finely tuned universal constants like the Fibonacci/ Phi/Lucas number patterns, or the constant of the Mass of the proton, which God has tuned to His energy fields in Creation to produce the harmonic ratios that gave rise to the highly improbable conditions that generated life. Empirical Science will remain at a loss as long as they approach the problem from a strict evolutionary context, or from a position that does not honor or acknowledge the Creator for the Work that only His Hands can do. [Rom. 1:19-23].

  Thus, the isolated example the phi relation witnessed in accordance with the Conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn in our banner, and throughout history, are an individual reflection of a greater rule of phi Symmetry, that pervades all Creation, from the largest to the smallest scales. We can see the pattern of this septenary structure of Creation not only in the seven naked-eye planets of our Solar System, but also in the atomic structure of the seven concentric orbits of the electron, in the Microcosm, and in the seven concentric layers of the stars in the structure of our Universe. God’s use of this planetary Conjunction cycle to mark the birth of key Biblical Patriarchs in history, like Abraham, exhibits how His Intelligent Design supports His divine Purposes. His eternal purpose involves the revelation of His only begotten Son, the Promised Seed, Jesus Christ. This will become more evident now, as we consider some of the Covenants God has instituted with man.
  The Progressive or Sequential Revelation of Jesus Christ, uncovers the Heavenly Father’s eternal purpose and plan of the Ages, to disclose the legal redemption of Mankind through His only begotten Son. His genetic background and identity would be revealed systematically and in greater detail with each bypassing age. As the ages progressed, the family lineage that would bear the Promised Seed into the world was narrowed down with finer accuracy. This revelation of God’s Only Begotten Son, parallels the transmission of God’s Covenants with humanity, as the birth of Jesus Christ drew nearer, who would be the “surety of a better covenant” [Heb. 7:22].

  Let’s look at a short history of God’s Covenants with Man and see how this applies to His Eternal Purpose of the Ages, the Lord Jesus Christ. The word “covenant” in the OT is the Hebrew Word berith, and in the Greek it is diatheke. These words are translated as a: league, testament, pact, or treaty, and are used extensively in God’s Word. A covenant means an agreement between two equal or unequal parties, and there are usually promises or requirements associated with the covenant that must be upheld at all cost. In fact any true covenant is based on the divine standard of God’s Word, because the first and greatest commitment ever made was when God committed Himself to His Word. Our God is the only One Who Keeps Covenants. Also, there is no higher standard than God’s Word that Mankind could ever commit to.
  There are two primary types of Covenants in God’s Word that we will concern ourselves with in this short study, the first is the Blood Covenant and the second is the Salt Covenant. These are two covenants of highest importance in Scripture. Either of these covenants could be between God and man, vertically, or between people, horizontally. For our purposes in this study, we begin by focusing on the Heavenly Father’s Covenant with Abram in Genesis 15.

Genesis 15:1-6 After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram: I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward. 2 And Abram said, Lord God what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless, and the steward of my house is this Eliezer of Damascus? 3 And Abram said, Behold, to me Thou hast given no seed: and lo, one born in my house is mine heir. 4 And behold, the word of the Lord came unto him, saying, This shall not be thine heir; but he that shall come forth out of thine own bowels shall be thine heir. 5 And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: and He said unto him, So shall thy seed be. 6 And he believed in the Lord; and He counted it to him for righteousness.

  God promised Abram that He would protect him, and be an exceeding great reward for him. But the main focus here concerns God’s promise regarding Abram’s seed and heir, along with the promised land associated with it. God’s Covenant with Abram sets the foundation for his blessings to , and all the nations of the world. In Genesis 15 above, Abram’s promised heir or:

*seed comes from his loins
*is innumerable as the stars
*includes land as an inheritance

  This was a notable covenant because like Noah, God’s promises to Abram in this instance were unconditional, God committed Himself to Abram and his seed, and the land would always belong to Abram and his family. God called Abraham to produce great nations, innumerable as the stars, so that in Abram’s seed, all nations of the world would be blessed. This record of God’s Covenant with Abram along with Genesis 13, is a foundational record for Biblical Astronomy because, Abram’s numbering of the stars here pertains not only to his recognition that his heirs relate to the 12 signs of the zodiac, as seen in his grandson Jacob’s prophecy over his 12 Sons in Gen. 49, but also that God’s promised seed would be part of Abram’s genetic line. The following verses show where God’s Covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob would be the basis for all peoples of their relation with the Promised Seed; [Gen. 22:17, 26:4, 37:9, 49:1-28, Exod. 32:13, Num. 24:17, Deut. 1:10, 10:22, 28:62, I Chron. 27:23, Neh. 9:23, Ps. 8:2-3, Acts 7:42-43].

Genesis 21:12b also states; “for in Isaac thy seed shall be called.” Abram knew there was a coming Messiah, and this told him the Messiah would come from his own genetic line. Galatains 3:16 tells us that this promised seed was Christ! This record also sets the basis for the Astronomy of the Biblical Patriarchs from Adam to Noah, and how these celestial principles were carried forward in nation of, in the Old Testament Law symbolism of the Hebrew Tabernacle and Temple, and it’s priests. All of this would be completed by the Jesus Christ as he fulfilled all the demands of the Passover Lamb, along with the King, and High Priest, after the Order of Melchisedek. [Heb. 7:21]

  God’s Covenant with Noah also deserves a closer look, because as another example of an unconditional covenant, its scope was far reaching, and applied to much more than Noah and his immediate family. Gen. 6:18 records that; God would establish His Covenant with Noah, and his family. After the flood had subsided and dry land was found, Noah honored God by building an altar and sacrificing unto Him [Gen. 8:20]. God promised not to “smite anymore every living thing…” as He had done in the flood. [Gen. 8:21]. In verse 22, God promises that: as long as the Earth remains, there would be seedtime, harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease. It is interesting to realize that the seasons of summer and winter that God promises would not cease here, are based on the Earth’s axis tilt, also known as the obliquity cycle. The Covenant of Day and Night is also included in this promise. There have been numerous doomsayers that predicted a radical shifting of the earth’s polar axis off of its current orientation of 23 degrees 27 minutes, and the impending disaster that would result. These predictions directly contradict God’s promises here in His Covenant with Noah! In Jeremiah 33, God connects this Covenant of Day and Night with the coming of the promised seed, in the royal lineage of the House of David.

Jeremiah 33:20-22
Thus says the Lord: If you can break My covenant with the day and with the night, so that there will not be day and night in their season, then My covenant may also be broken with David My servant, so that he shall not have a son to reign on his throne, and with the Levites, the priests, My ministers. As the host of heaven cannot be numbered, nor the sand of the sea measured, so will I multiply the descendants of David My servant and the Levites who minister to Me.

 The point of this comparison of Covenants is not that they are both perpetual covenants, because day and night will cease [Rev. 21:23], since Christ will be the light in the coming world, fulfilling his call as the SUN of Righteousness, [Mal. 4:2]. The point is that all the Covenants God made, whether with Noah, Abraham or David, realize their complete fulfillment in Christ, Who is the embodiment of God’s eternal purpose, His plan for the ages.
The Blood Covenant of the Old Testament of course had numerous requirements that man needed to uphold, to reap the benefits of God’s promises, for example circumcision, which was the token in the flesh of man’s recognition to uphold his commitments to keep God’s commandments. Christ became the perfect sacrifice to fulfill every aspect of this OT Law, to accomplish our redemption forever, and the sacrifice of his innocent blood stands as the greatest example ever of God’s love and commitment by any man, for those who are heirs of God’s promises to Abraham unto this day. Acts 3:25 says that we are children of God’s Covenant with Abraham, and our spiritual inheritance in the Age of Grace is rooted in the precedents of the OT Law. We no longer live under the OT Law because Christ fulfilled it, and today we live by obedience, and our commitment to the Heavenly Father. The Covenant of the New Testament has superseded the OT Law, and it cannot be broken. It guarantees eternal life to all joint-heirs of Christ, embodied in the gift of holy spirit, given initially on the day of Pentecost [Acts 2]. Christ’s perfect sacrifice for us represents the completion of the Blood Covenant between God and Man.

  The second Covenant we will consider here is the Covenant of Salt. Like the Blood Covenant, this is known as a perpetual covenant [Num. 18:19], thus it is still carried on today, especially by believer’s in the Eastern cultures. In this vein, salt itself has preservative qualities, and is a proper symbol of perpetual duration. Salt was a required component of OT sacrifices, and sacrificial meals. Salt also has healing and flavorful qualities, and it is a basic requirement for human life. Levi. 2:13 sets the Godly standard for sacrificial offerings in the OT Law, which were offered by the Levitical priesthood. Salt symbolized the commitment of the person making the offering. Even today, the believer’s in the NT Church, are to be “living sacrifices” to God [Rom. 12:1], and for these sacrifices to be genuine, they must be supported by the true commitment of the individual. Lacking this true commitment from the heart, the individual’s words and deeds become what Christ called “vain repetitions,” [Matt. 6:7]. I Cor. 4:1-2 states that faithfulness as a requirement among the stewards of the mysteries, it is not optional equipment!
  The greatest example among men of faithfulness and salted commitment is the Lord Jesus Christ. Luke 2:7 records how the infant Jesus was salted at birth, in his “swaddling clothes.” This is an Orientalism indicating that culture’s practice that when a king was born, he was wrapped in expensive cloth strips or “swaddling clothes.” Prior to this wrapping the infant would be washed in salt water, as an indication of righteous kingly judgment which would be required of him during his lifetime. Thus the wrapping in swaddling clothes symbolized that the kings words & lifestyle would be salted before God and the people of his kingdom. As King of Kings [Rev. 17:14, 19:16], Jesus Christ is the ultimate example of this righteous judgment. This is also apparent in his genetic lineage as the root and offspring of David [Rev. 5:5]. As we follow his exemplary example of salted commitment, we become what Christ called his disciples in Matt. 5:13, the salt of the earth. Our commitment to God needs to remain undiluted, and many times this takes a day-by-day decision. When we put God first in our lives, everything else falls into place. When we acknowledge the Heavenly Father as our true Source in every category of life, we will reap the full benefits of these perpetual covenants with God, not only for ourselves but our loved ones also. God is the Source of all that is good in life, and when we put Him in His proper place, we will experience this peace, prosperity, health, long life and abundance in every category, [John 10:10].

  Another perpetual covenant I’d like to mention here is the Sabbath [Ex. 31:16, Levi. 24:8]. The Blessings of the Sabbath are perpetual based on God’s Works during the Creation Week, which was capped off on the 7th day [Gen. 2:2-3]. This is the reason man recognizes the seven-day “week” in his time reckonings, and it is a powerful witness to the Biblical number 7 as a symbol of spiritual perfection. As man has continued this practice of reckoning by sevens, also known as septenary order, there are benefits to be reaped from this covenant written and enacted by God in Genesis, prior to the Mosaic Law. This does not mean that we allow anyone to install this as a legal requirement over our heads [Col. 2:16], but a recognition of the Sabbatical cycle in the context of the Hebrew Calendar and Jubilee festival, can be instructive when considering the ministry of Christ, and how he fulfilled this aspect of the OT Law. This is an important topic in our study of Biblical Astronomy principles which are evident in other studies on our website, like The Calendar of the Biblical Patriarchs. This study points out among many other things that the cycles of the Sun and Moon are correlated via the phi ratio [1.618] in the 50-year Jubilee cycle, because there are 618 full moons every 50 solar years. This not only exhibits another phi relation in our solar system, but also ties this divine knowledge to the Hebrew calendar as commanded in Levitcus 25. Thus, God is fully aware of this phi relation in our solar system, even as He is all the other phi/Fibonacci/Lucas relations, here & throughout the Natural World, since He instituted them in His Creation, to give glory to His Omnipotence. We find Scriptural evidence of this is in Jeremiah 31

Jeremiah 31:35
Thus saith the Lord, Which giveth the Sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the Moon and of the stars for a light by night, Which divideth the sea when the waves thereof roar; the Lord of Hosts is His name: 

  The Hebrew word for "ordinance" here, is also used in Job 38:33, in reference to the "ordinances of Heaven" in an astronomical context [Job 38:31-32]. This Hebrew word for "ordinance" is also used in reference to Natural Law as seen in Job 28:26, in the context of the Laws of Nature, as prescibed by God concerning the "rain, lightning and thunder." The laws of the golden section, govern many aspects of the Natural World, and exhibit the Creator's symmetrical Intelligent Design of His Creation at all levels. The preponderance of the phi ratio throughout the Four Kingdoms of Life, in both living and non-living systems is an awesome testimony to proportional order employed by the Creator, as seen in the ratios of planetary orbits in our Solar System. This phi ratio, also called the "Divine Proportion," is arrived at by a comparison. The relationship that becomes evident in this comparison is divine, because it is found consistently throughout all levels of the Natural World. In the comparison of the divine proportion, the whole is to the larger as the larger is to the smaller. As we observe the Natural World, if we follow this exemplar pattern of the divine proportion, we will compare the larger with the smaller, in the context of the whole. The graphic illustrated in Plate II below also

Plate II. The Golden Rectangle

divine proportion

exhibits the phi ratio in a linear and geometric context. We start with a simple square ABCD. Using a (dotted) line from the midpoint of one side of the square to an opposite corner RC, as the radius, we can construct an arc CE, that defines the limits of a new rectangle AEFD. When we use the endpoints of this arc, we can complete this rectangle, called a golden rectangle, which exhibits the golden section. In this process we will uncover harmonious & symmetrical relationships from the divine works of the Creator's Hand. The idea of proportion is also used to compare individual parts, first to each other, then the whole. Numerically, this comparison can be expressed as we have shown in the banner heading this article, using a line divided under the planets into two parts, where the ratio of the whole line to the larger part is the same as the larger part to the smaller. This is mirrored in Plate II above, in the line FD, divided at the golden section "C." Thus the divine proportion relates the smallest aspects of Creation to the largest, showings God's Hand underwriting it all. Some dynamic examples of this are found in the golden rectangles of the Hebrew Tabernacle and Temple. The Tabernacle is a one by two double square rectangle, which is not only the foundation of the blueprints of the Temple of David and Solomon, but also the Ark of the Covenant and the King's Chamber "sarcophagus" of the Great Pyramid, which has the same dimensions as the Ark [Ex. 25:10]. More details on this can be found in our study of the Celestial Symbolism of the Hebrew Temple and Tabernacle. Since God revealed the dimensions of these sacred enclosures to Moses and King David by divine revelation, we have undeniable proof that the principles of the golden section and phi ratio are utilized as an aspect of the Creator's omniscient wisdom and Intelligent Design throughout all levels of Creation [Prov. 3:19]. The Divine power and energy of the Omnipotent Creator resonates in, and through every level of the Works of His Hand, and as we give Him His due credit for His awesome Works, we can join the melody of the harmonious chorus of Nature that sings His praises. This linear expression of the phi ratio is also seen in the curved line arc of a logarithmic spiral, reflected in the arc-CE in Plate II above. This illustrates the dynamic growth pattern found from the largest spiral Galaxy, to the smallest of human embryos. With this in mind, let's consider the signs surrounding the birth of Abram.

The Celestial Signs Marking Abram’s Birth

  As we begin our consideration of the celestial signs that marked The Birth of Abraham, in 1953 BC, we will take into account some pertinent astronomical history. We have noted in other articles on this site, that the Conjunction cycle of Jupiter-Saturn is known to provide a window on the precession of the equinoxes, according to their base 60 planetary Rhythms. This phenomena was witnessed in the ancient Astronomy of numerous cultures including the Maya, Romans, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Chinese, & astronomers of ancient . In fact, the ancient Chinese Zhuanxu Calendar is thought to have started in 1953 BC, linked with a significant predawn all-planet alignment on March 5th. According to astronomers Kevin Pang and John Bangert of the Jet Propulsion Labs, in an ancient text written by Liu Xiang [77-9 BC], this alignment took place near the Pegasus Square. The idea of a Jupiter-Saturn triple Conjunction occurring with an alignment of the planets, was thought to indicate a termination point, where all the planetary cycles were in agreement, similar to the inception point of their cycles. This is thought to coincide with not only the start of the precession of the equinoxes, but also the intersection of the precessional cycle with the center of our Milky Way Galaxy, located in Sagittarius. This explains the popularity of the 2012 date, in the Astronomy of the Maya among others, as a date of the end of the world.

God designed certain triple Conjunctions of Jupiter-Saturn as individual markers and movements in a grand celestial Symphony of the Ages, ultimately leading to Christ’s Birth. The triple Conjunction of Jupiter-Saturn we will notice took place in the sign Aquarius in 1953 BC, marking the Birth of Abram. As the Father of Many Nations, and the progenitor of the line of believer’s, Abraham through his offspring Isaac and Jacob would bear the promised seed. This triple Conjunction confirmed that Christ would come out of the nation of, which constituted the 12 tribes of Jacob, whose name God changed to, to reflect his spiritual inheritance.

Another Triple Conjunction of Jupiter-Saturn took place 417 years later in the sign of Taurus the Bull. This marked the Birth of Moses, the forerunner of Christ as the Deliverer of Israel. A 1,000 years later, Daniel taught the Magi about these planetary unions from the contemporary example of a Jupiter-Saturn triple union 523-522 BC in Virgo. Less than 400 years later, in 132 BC a new star or supernova exploded onto the scene, in a decan of the sign Virgo called Coma. Pictured as it is seen in the Dendera zodiac below, in the head of the child held in his mother’s arms, the new star, or supernova entered the picture drawing attention to the sign Coma meaning “The Desired of all Nations” [Hag. 2:7]. This supernova burned brightly for over 200 years as a beacon lighting the way to the general time wherein the birth of Christ would occur. This disclosed that as The Desire of all Nations, Christ was coming for the redemption of the Gentiles, not just Israel.

Plate III. The decan Of Coma

 desire of all nations

  The Magi were surely some of the first of these Gentiles whose response to this light of salvation made history. The Coma supernova also set the stage for the third triple union of Jupiter-Saturn in 7-6 BC that lead to the birth of Christ. This Conjunction took place in Pisces and marked a transition in the ages of the precession of the equinoxes, from the Age of Aries to the Age of Pisces. This new Precessional Age was marked because for the prior 2160 years, Aries was the sign wherein the Sunrise occurred on the Spring equinox. The Triple Conjunction of Jupiter-Saturn in 7-6 BC marked the first time that the Sun arose in the Sign of Pisces, on the Spring equinox, signifying a new Precessional Age, the Age of Pisces. Over 2000 years has already passed since this opening of the Piscean Age, and the Birth of Christ that occurred three years after its opening. This Sign of Pisces is marked by two fish, one swimming vertically towards the North Pole and the other horizontally along the ecliptic. These fish represent the houses of and, and it further disclosed that the Promised Seed would come out of the Royal House of. Christ had to be the Son of Adam, Abraham and David to fulfill all righteousness. The fullness of the gap between the sufferings of the Lord, seen during his first coming, and his glorious return as King of Kings and Lord of Lords continues to take place in the Piscean Age. Finally, this 7-6 BC triple Conjunction gave the Magi all they  needed to identify the signs marking the birth of Christ in 3-2 BC when the triple Conjunction of Jupiter-Regulus occurred in Leo, the Lion of the tribe of Judah. This panoramic view of Biblical and Celestial History, beautifully encapsulates how God utilized the Natural Law witness in the heavens, coordinated with Divine Scripture, to disclose in increasing detail, the identity of His only begotten Son Jesus Christ.  

biblical astronomy
biblical Studies
biblical research